Who married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei?

Empress Feng Qing married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Empress Feng Run married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Feng Zhaoyi married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Gao Zhaorong married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Luó fūrén married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Yuán guìrén married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Zhào Chōnghuá married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

impératrice Liwenzhen married Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei .

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei ((北)魏孝文帝) (October 13, 467 – April 26, 499), personal name né Tuoba Hong (拓拔宏), later Yuan Hong (元宏), or Toba Hung II, was an emperor of the Northern Wei from September 20, 471 to April 26, 499.

Emperor Xiaowen implemented a drastic policy of sinicization, intending to centralize the government and make the multi-ethnic state easier to govern. These policies included changing artistic styles to reflect Chinese preferences and forcing the population to speak the language and to wear Chinese clothes. He compelled his own Xianbei people and others to adopt Chinese surnames, and changed his own family surname from Tuoba to Yuan. He also encouraged intermarriage between Xianbei and Han.

In 494, Emperor Xiaowen moved the Northern Wei capital from Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi) to Luoyang, a city long acknowledged as a major center in Chinese history. The shift in the capital was mirrored by a shift in tactics from active defense to passive defense against the Rouran. While the capital was moved to Luoyang, the military elite remained centered at the old capital, widening the differences between the administration and the military. The population at the old capital remained fiercely conservative, while the population at Luoyang were much more eager to adopt Xiaowen's policies of sinicization. His reforms were met with resistance by the Xianbei elite. In 496, two plots by Xianbei nobles, one centered on his crown prince Yuan Xun, and one centered on his distant uncle Yuan Yi (元頤). By 497, Xiaowen had destroyed the conspiracies and forced Yuan Xun to commit suicide.

Unfortunately for Emperor Xiaowen, his sinicization policies had their downsides—namely, he adopted the Jin Dynasty social stratification methods, leading to incompetent nobles being put into positions of power while capable men of low birth not being able to advance in his government. Further, his wholesale adoption of Han culture and fine arts caused the nobles to be corrupt in order to afford the lifestyles of the Han elite, leading to further erosion to effective rule. By the time of his grandson Emperor Xiaoming, Northern Wei was in substantial upheaval due to agrarian revolts, and by 534 had been divided into two halves, each of which would soon be taken over by warlords.

One of Xiaowen's enduring legacies was the establishment of the equal-field system in China, a system of government-allotted land that would last until the An Shi Rebellion in the mid Tang Dynasty (618–907).

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Empress Feng Qing

Empress Feng Qing (馮清) was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. She was Emperor Xiaowen's first empress.

Feng Qing was a daughter of Feng Xi (馮熙) the Prince of Changli, who was a brother of the powerful Grand Empress Dowager Feng, the wife of Emperor Wencheng and regent over his son Emperor Xianwen and grandson Emperor Xiaowen. (Through her father, she was therefore also a great-granddaughter of the Northern Yan emperor Feng Hong.) Her mother was probably Feng Xi's wife Princess Boling. She had two older sisters (by Feng Xi's concubine Lady Chang) who were concubines of Emperor Xiaowen — Feng Run and an unnamed sister, but the unnamed sister died early, and after Feng Run had a major illness, she left the palace and became a Buddhist nun.

In 493, Emperor Xiaowen took Feng Qing as his empress. She initially was much favored. However, after Emperor Xiaowen found out that Feng Run had recovered, he took Feng Run back as a concubine. (There is some evidence, but not conclusive evidence, that Feng Qing might have been involved in her sister's being returned to the palace.) Feng Run, because she was Emperor Xiaowen's concubine earlier and an older sister, refused to submit to Feng Qing, and tried to undermine Feng Qing's position as an empress, including accusing her of being against Emperor Xiaowen's Sinicization program. In 496, Emperor Xiaowen deposed Feng Qing.

Because Feng Qing was virtuous and much interested in Buddhism, she became a Buddhist nun and remained one for the rest of her life.

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Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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Empress Feng Run

Empress Feng Run (馮潤) (died 499), formally Empress You (幽皇后, literally "the lonely empress") was an empress of the Xianbei-led Chinese Northern Wei dynasty. She was the second empress of Emperor Xiaowen.

Feng Run was a daughter of Feng Xi (馮熙) the Prince of Changli, who was a brother of the powerful Grand Empress Dowager Feng, the wife of Emperor Wencheng and regent over his son Emperor Xianwen and grandson Emperor Xiaowen. (Through her father, she was therefore also a great-granddaughter of the Northern Yan emperor Feng Hong.) Her mother was Feng Xi's concubine Lady Chang. When she was 13, Grand Empress Dowager Feng selected her and a sister of hers to be Emperor Xiaowen's concubines. Both were favored by Emperor Xiaowen, but her sister soon died of an illness, and she herself grew ill (may be of smallpox) and was sent back to her home. She subsequently became a Buddhist nun, but was said to have been sexually immoral during this timespan as well.

In 493, Feng Run's younger sister by a different mother (probably Feng Xi's wife Princess Boling), Feng Qing, became Emperor Xiaowen's empress. Subsequently, Emperor Xiaowen, perhaps through Feng Qing, found out that Feng Run had recovered from her illness, and took her back into the palace as an imperial consort, with the title Zhaoyi (昭儀). She became Emperor Xiaowen's favorite again. Because Feng Run was Emperor Xiaowen's concubine earlier and was an older sister, she refused to submit to Feng Qing and tried to undermine Feng Qing's position as an empress, including accusing Feng Qing of disobeying Emperor Xiaowen's Sinicization regime. In 496, Emperor Xiaowen deposed Feng Qing, and in 497, he created Feng Run empress.

Because Emperor Xiaowen often spent his time on the frontlines battling rival Southern Qi, he was not often at the palace in the capital Luoyang. Empress Feng therefore carried on an affair with her attendant Gao Pusa (高菩薩). With the eunuch Shuang Meng (雙蒙) protecting her, few knew or dared to say anything about the affair, and when her attendant Ju Peng (劇彭) tried to counsel her to stop the affair, she would not, and Ju died in fear and anger. At the same time, however, Empress Feng tried to force Emperor Xiaowen's sister Princess Pengcheng (who had been widowed after the death of her husband Liu Chengxu (劉承緒), to marry her brother Feng Su (馮夙). Emperor Xiaowen approved of the marriage, Princess Pengcheng was unwilling to marry Feng Su, so she fled out of Luoyang and sought out Emperor Xiaowen on the frontline, revealing to him Empress Feng's affair with Gao. Emperor Xiaowen was initially unwilling to believe the accusation and kept it secret, but Empress Feng became nervous and, along with her mother Lady Chang, engaged witches to try to curse Emperor Xiaowen, who was already ill by this time, to death.

However, Emperor Xiaowen did not die, and after he returned to Luoyang in 499, he interrogated Gao and Shuang, and both admitted. He then summoned Empress Feng and confronted her with Gao and Shuang's testimony—at an interrogation that no one else other than himself was at. After he finished the interrogation, he then summoned his brothers Yuan Xie the Prince of Pengcheng and Yuan Xiang (元詳) the Prince of Beihai, stating to them, "She used to be your sister-in-law, but treat her now as a passerby, and you need not avoid her." (By traditional Chinese custom, a brother-in-law and a sister-in-law may not sit together or speak with each other.) Emperor Xiaowen then stated, "This woman wanted to stick a knife in my ribs. Because she is a daughter of Empress Dowager Wenming's clan, I cannot depose her, but I hope that one day she will find her conscience and kill herself. Do not believe that I have any remaining feelings for her." After the two princes exited, Emperor Xiaowen gave her a final goodbye, indicating that he would not see her again. The concubines still greeted her as empress, but Emperor Xiaowen ordered his crown prince Yuan Ke not to see her again as well. When Emperor Xiaowen sent eunuchs to give her instructions on certain matters, she rebuked the eunuchs, stating that she was an empress and would not take instructions from eunuchs. In anger, Emperor Xiaowen sent a cane to her mother Lady Chang, and Lady Chang was forced to cane Empress Feng herself as punishment.

Later that year, Emperor Xiaowen grew seriously ill, and he left instructions to Yuan Xie to force Empress Feng to commit suicide after his own death, but to bury her with imperial honors still to avoid shame to the Feng clan. He then died, and Yuan Xie sent the palace official Bai Zheng (白整) to give her poison. Empress Feng refused to drink the poison, stating, "My husband did not make such an order! It is the princess who wants to kill me." Bai seized her physically and forced poisonous peppers into her mouth, and she died. She was buried with imperial honors with her husband.

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Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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Feng Zhaoyi

Description in English not found, we only have a description in English:

冯左昭仪,北魏時人,生卒年不詳。北魏文明太后的侄女,孝文帝拓跋宏的妃子,孝文幽皇后和孝文废皇后的妹妹,太師馮熙的第四女。

馮氏和姐姐幽皇后一起被姑姑文明太后挑入掖庭的,時幽皇后14歲,馮氏年齡不詳。馮氏去世很早,幽皇后生病被逐。

 
 

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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Gao Zhaorong

Description in English not found, we only have a description in English:

高 照容(こう しょうよう、? - 496年)は、北魏の孝文帝の貴人(側室)。宣武帝の生母で、皇后として追尊された。高肇の妹、宣武帝の皇后高英のおばにあたる。

 
 

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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Luó fūrén

Description in English not found, we only have a description in English:

罗夫人(5世紀-514年),河南郡洛阳县人,使持节、侍中、镇东将军、青州刺史罗云之女,北魏孝文帝拓跋宏的妃子,封夫人(高級妃嬪)。

 
 

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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Yuán guìrén

Description in English not found, we only have a description in English:

袁贵人,中国南北朝北魏孝文帝元宏的贵人,她是京兆王元愉的生母。元愉在508年反对哥哥宣武帝元恪,自称皇帝,不久被杀。元愉的儿子元宝炬在535年在长安被宇文泰拥立为皇帝,即西魏文帝。

 
 

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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Zhào Chōnghuá

Description in English not found, we only have a description in English:

赵氏(467年-514年),南阳白水人,北魏孝文帝拓跋宏的九嫔。

赵氏生平史书无载,见于墓志。墓志称她为拓跋宏九嫔,生义阳公主。499年,拓跋宏临终,遣散所有妃嫔回家再嫁。根据墓志,赵氏当是守节一生没有再嫁人。

延昌三年八月十三日,赵氏去世,年48岁,宣武帝元恪下诏追赠她为充华(嫔的最低一级)。九月廿八日以妃礼附葬长陵。

 
 

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei

Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei
 
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impératrice Liwenzhen

Description in English not found, we only have a description in English:

林皇后(りんこうごう、? - 483年)は、北魏の孝文帝の貴人(側室)で、皇子元恂の生母。

 
 

Father of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei and his spouses:

Mother of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei and her spouses: