Who married Andronikos II Palaiologos?

Anna of Hungary married Andronikos II Palaiologos .

Irene of Montferrat married Andronikos II Palaiologos .

Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos II Palaiologos (Greek: Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 1282 to 1328. Andronikos' reign was marked by the beginning of the decline of the Byzantine Empire. During his reign, the Turks conquered most of the Western Anatolian territories of the Empire and, during the last years of his reign, he also had to fight his grandson Andronikos in the First Palaiologan Civil War. The civil war ended in Andronikos II's forced abdication in 1328 after which he retired to a monastery.

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Anna of Hungary

Anna of Hungary (c. 1260 – 1281) was a Princess of Hungary and Croatia, the daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman.

On 8 November 1273, Anna married Andronikos II Palaiologos.

According to George Pachymeres, the couple had two children:

  • Michael IX Palaiologos
  • Constantine Palaiologos, despotes.

Anna died before her husband became senior emperor in 1282. However every Palaiologos emperor to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 descended from her through her son Michael.

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Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos II Palaiologos
 
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Irene of Montferrat

Yolande of Montferrat (c. 1274 – 1317 in Constantinople) (also known as Violante, then Empress Irene) was the second wife of Andronikos II Palaiologos and thus empress of the Byzantine Empire. She was the heir of the Margraviate of Montferrat.

Born in Casale, she was daughter of William VII, Marquess of Montferrat and his second wife Beatrice of Castile. Her maternal grandparents were King Alfonso X of Castile and his wife Violante of Aragon. Yolande (variation of Violante) was named after her grandmother.

In 1284, Andronikos II, a widower by his first marriage with Anna of Hungary, married Yolanda (who was renamed Eirene as Empress). She and Andronikos II were distant cousins, both being descendants of Andronikos Doukas Angelos (ca. 1122-1185). With her, Eirene brought the Montferrat rights to the kingdom of Thessalonica, a dominion that, despite having been conquered half-a-century before Eirene's birth by the Byzantine state of Epirus, was still claimed by its short-lived (1204–1224) Montferrat royal dynasty.

It was later proven that the Italian Montferrat had no living male heirs of the Aleramici dynasty, and Eirene's sons were entitled to inherit it upon the 1305 death of Eirene's brother John I, Marquess of Montferrat.

The marriage produced the following children:

  • John Palaiologos (c. 1286–1308), despotes.
  • Bartholomaios Palaiologos (born 1289), died young.
  • Theodore I, Marquis of Montferrat (1291–1338).
  • Simonis Palaiologina (1294–after 1336), who married King Stefan Milutin of Serbia.
  • Theodora Palaiologina (born 1295), died young.
  • Demetrios Palaiologos (1297–1343), despotēs. Father of Irene Palaiologina.
  • Isaakios Palaiologos (born 1299), died young.

Eirene's stepson, Michael IX Palaiologos was intended to succeed her husband as emperor, but ultimately it was Michael's son Andronikos III Palaiologos, who became the successor instead of Michael. This was largely due to the work Eirene did to ensure some power and property to her own offspring.

Eirene left Constantinople in 1303 and settled in Thessaloniki. She set her own court in the city and controlled her own finances and foreign policy until her death fourteen years later. Nicephorus Gregoras portrayed her as an ambitious and arrogant leader in his historical writings.

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Father of Andronikos II Palaiologos and his spouses:

Mother of Andronikos II Palaiologos and her spouses: